Management Approaches Pdf
Management approaches - Think Learn Act
The underlying assumption is that any given task has one or more predecessor tasks and also one or more successor tasks, except in the start and finish nodes. Gantt and Taylor also recommended payment of bonus to foremen, based on the incremental improvements in the performance of workers under them. He had started his experiments with the concept in at the Midvale Steel Company. If unforeseen eventualities occur, corrective action would have to be taken along with making the corresponding changes in the Gantt charts.
This serves the interest of the workers as well as the management, as the workers feel motivated to maximize their earnings, while the management gets the benefit of increased productivity. Lillian Gilbreth conducted research on motion studies. Bureaucracy is often criticized for its red tapism and profligacy of rules.
Therefore, only the economic and physical needs of the people are emphasized and not their social needs. The total network represents relationships between activities. Further, classical theorists also ignore important aspects of organizational behaviour.
In fact, the time and motion study concept was developed by Taylor in association with Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. This is the most pioneering classical approach, and it places emphasis on the scientific study of work methods to improve efficiency of the workers. They also fail to consider the influences of internal and external environmental forces affecting an organization and only lay stress on achieving higher productivity, more than anything else. Max Weber pioneered the theory of the bureaucratic organization, which places emphasis on the authority structures and the authority relations. Some principles of Fayol are also contradictory, namely, the principle of specialization, which contradicts the principle of unity of command.
Like Taylor, Frank Gilbreth is also known as the father of motion study. The Gantt chart is used for production planning and to compare the planned and actual performances. The piece-rate incentive system rewards the worker who produces maximum output. The principles are based on the assumption that people are rational and are primarily driven by their desire to fulfil material gains.
TOPIC 2 BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Contemporary Approaches to Management. Basic scientific management principles revolve around operation-level problems and do not focus on managerial issues, stephen covey quotes pdf essential for managing an organization.
These theorists laid certain principles for managing an organization. This chart was developed in the s to control large-scale defence projects.
It makes a job simpler, easier, and better. Standards are decided using the time and motion study. It shows the relationships between different activities over a given time frame. If workers are able to produce more, then in addition to their base rate, they get incentives on the number of extra units produced over and above the standard minimum units. Taylor as the most important.
They do not deal with the problems of leadership, motivation, power, or informal relations. Both of them explored the ways of reducing fatigue. Evolution of Organizational Behaviour. The time and motion study facilitates the determination of a standard time for performing a job. It is a visual device used for production control, indicating the progress of production in terms of time rather than quantity.
As per his incentive plan, workers receive their day wages even when they do not perform their jobs completely, but they get bonus when they complete the work earlier than the normal standard time. An arc here, an arrow represents an activity. The time frame, expressed either in hours, days, weeks, or months, is shown on the horizontal or x-axis and activities are plotted against the y- axis.
Various Approaches to Management
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